THE HISTORY OF BAM
AFTER THE WAR, BUT BEFORE BAM
THE BIG CITY
THE ART AND SOCIAL LIFE
THE FIRST DECADE. 1975-1985.
CHRONOLOGY OF EVENTS.
THE BREAKING POINT
WHAT'S LACKING IN THE CITY
WOULD YOU LIKE MORE DETAILS?
TOWNS AND VILLAGES OF THE AREA
Tynda (Biased Notes)
And then again they began BAM construction.Tynda began changing.
January of 1972.The first construction workers from a newly formed at the time construction agency "BAMstroiput'" arrived on the eastern side of the village.They laid the groundwork to the future capital of BAM.14th of September.A collective of GOREM-28 of the BAMstroiput' agency laid the first railroad section from kilometer 0 of the BAM-Tynda-Berkakit line.
This construction subdivision was formed on June 26th 1941 by an order of the Peoples Defense Committee.They had a task: build defenses near Moscow, lay the "Road of Life" across Ladoga Lake to Leningrad, repair the railroad to Stalingrad after it was bombed.
And the settlement began to grow not only across but also in height.The first five-story and then nine-story apartment buildings were being built in very short time periods.The famous Gusev brigade could build a house from scratch in one month.
You go to work in morning on a cold day in a hurry, and see in the construction pit some people scurrying around.The next morning, there is a fence around the pit.The fence is high, you can't see through it.All right, it's just a fence.Except there are pounding sounds, noise and smoke coming from behind the fence.In one week, you can see walls going up from behind the fence.And in two more weeks, they tear down the fence and in its place there is a brand new almost finished apartment building.These nine-story buildings were set among the small one-story "private sector."
Manufactured barracks, that meant to serve as temporary housing, were set up from pre-manufactured walls in two-three days.Alas, these "temporary" houses became permanent for the many.However, with all the construction volume, there were not enough apartments with amenities.That's why some people had to provide the amenities on their own.They cut into the hot water pipes and brought hot water into their houses.This allowed to installed toilets and bathtubs.Some people converted the old railroad cars into houses by removing the inner sections.Then they added verandas and storage sheds to them.Polished wood boards made the house siding.Some craftsmen could build a house from free materials: written off railroad ties, boards, blocks from manufactured homes.
From the very beginning Tynda was destined to become the capital of the mainline.
Resolution #189 of the Minister of the USSR transport construction agency from August 29th 1974 ordered to create a Main Construction Management Agency for effective BAM project management.Two other construction management agencies "Angarstroi" and "Bamstroiput'" became a part of a newly organized agency.An honorary builder of RSFSR K. V. Mokhortov was named a chief of Glavbamstroi.V. F. Sakun was named his first deputy and I. S. Ryazanov was named a chief engineer.In December 1975 Glavbamstroi moved to Tynda.By the end of the year, there were approximately 40 construction subdivisions on the railroad, employing more then 10,000 people.
At the beginning, the majority of the population lived in temporary housing.That was the name for manufactured homes made out of plywood panels.They were put together very quickly and meant to provide temporary housing.However, they are still out there and people still live in them.Besides the manufactured panel homes, barrel-shaped field trailers homes were also popular.
Those are not the railroad tanker cars or the water barrels as one might think.They were structures built in a shape of a barrel out of sheet metal.One could find living quarters, warehouses and stores in those barrels.Barrels were so popular that the central store (recently burned down) was named "The Barrel."
Muscovites curated Tynda.In 1974 construction of five-story apartment building (the old Shimanovsk series) had begun.On July 30th 1975 one of the leading Glavbamstroi organizations began construction of the first nine-story apartment buildings.The first building was completed from foundation to closing in one month and nine days.That was the beginning of the fast construction of the city and BAM.Apartment complexes were built in 1.5-2 months.And that's a nine-story house with 3-5 sections.
In two years Krasnaya Presnya Street looked like in a "real" big city.These nine-story buildings were the favorites on the national TV news program "Vremya," whenever they had a piece on Tynda.By the way, do you know why our main street is called this way?
KRASNAYA PRESNYA STREET.
Why our main street was named this way.
In June 1975, a letter from the Board of party veterans and Komsomol organization of Krasnopresnensky committee of Moscow came to Dzheltulak district party committee:
The Board of party veterans and Komsomol organization of Krasnopresnensky committee of Moscow would like to send you a request.
Under the initiative of the 1905-revolution participant Kasatkina, Red Guard members from the barricades on the legendary Krasnaya Presnya, and also a large group of Komsomol members, the Board of veterans decided to ask you for an advice.
Do you think it would be possible to name one of the streets in Tynda "Krasnaya Presnya" to honor the upcoming anniversary?
The 70th anniversary of the December uprising in Moscow in 1905 is near.
During the Great Patriotic War (WWII), 37 graduates of Krasnaya Presnya became Heroes of the Soviet Union.
In 1974 our guys were sent to the construction of the century -- BAM.
Dear comrades! We would appreciate it very much if you, in light of the upcoming 70th anniversary festivities, could satisfy our request that would broaden our propaganda of revolutionary, battle and labor traditions of the party, Komsomol and the people.We would like to see that the builders of BAM and Tynda residents remember and never forget this legacy.
As soon as we get Your answer, we will discuss this issue with the Krasnopresnensky District Communist Party Committee and the Presidium of the executive committee of the labor deputies board.
With a communist hello,
Chairman of the Krasnaya Presnya Veterans Board
A. N. Gramp."
On 29th of July 1975 executive committee of Tynda Deputies Board of Dzheltulak district of Amur Region made a decision:
"In regards to naming the street in a new SMP-544 development.The street (first street with multi-story buildings) is to be named Krasnaya Presnya.
This decision is to be sent for review to the bureau of Krasnopresnensky Committee of the Communist Party and to Presidium of the executive committee of the labor deputies board.
Chairman of executive committee of Tynda Board (Soviet)
Secretary of executive committee of Tynda Board
Muscovites were doing their absolute best.They wanted Tynda to become "an affiliate" of Moscow.For example, artists of MHAT Theater put on a show for BAM builders by the 8th of February.
Big people were solving big problems of BAM.In an effort not to repeat mistakes and not to make new ones, they decided to use a scientific approach.September was especially rich with events.On September 8th, Presidium of Academy of Sciences of the USSR created "Science Board dealing with problems of Baikal-Amur railroad."The board was to facilitate scientific research related to the construction and development of the adjacent territories and conducted by Academy of Sciences institutions.A scientific conference on human's adaptation in the areas of BAM construction took place on September 15th in Blagoveschensk.Scientists discussed results of their work and outlined a program for further scientific research.They came up with some recommendations on health safeguards for the builders.Another science conference took place in Chita on September 17th dedicated to the problems of BAM economical development.A similar conference was held two years later in Blagoveschensk.
Here you go.People did some thinking on how to properly set up the future life of the future BAM employees.They wrote so many dissertations.So many scientists became famous.Where are they now?How come they do not care about BAM?
By the 30th Anniversary of V-Day, 5 months before the deadline, railroad traffic began on the Bam - Tynda line.Construction of the mainline began in three directions - west, east and north. In early November they began construction of a line to Berkakit, closer to Yakut coal.
Here is another almost official report:
24th of September.A specially formed propaganda train "Komsomol'skya Pravda" (Truth of Komsomol) left Moscow for BAM.A propaganda group was on board of the train.Its purpose was to service the construction while helping the Komsomol and trade union construction organizations.At four o'clock in the afternoon, a meeting took place in Moscow railroad car repair plant (named after Voitovich) dedicated to the train's departure to the construction project.A similar propaganda train was formed at this plant 57 years ago, in August of 1918.It was named after Lenin.The purpose of the new train was to conduct political education of the young builders.
This is the train the Michael Zadornov took a ride on.The very one who allegedly has never been a Komsomol member.That very writer who insulted the residents of BAM by the phrase: "BAM was built by convicts on one end and by army men on the other.And when they met up -- Komsomol celebrated the victory."He especially liked to study Komsomol members of BAM and Tynda, "where their nest is."He was a student of a regime higher learning institution and not a Komsomol member?!But then again, how did he manage to join the propaganda train?I don't even mention his admittance to an elite school.According to reminiscences of the Komsomol Central Committee employees, he used to constantly ask them to gather the information from labor organizations and private BAM citizens.That was needed in order to receive the Lenin Komsomol Award.And they received it.
The first Mongol delegation came at the end of 1974.They brought ten thousand cowhide coats as a present.Those BAM coats were a subject of desire for many celebrities who visited Tynda.
In 1974 47.7% of all new arrivers came to BAM as a result of the national call.Younger generation that accepted the national call made up 80% of the work force at SMP (Construction Organization)# 266, 544, 567, 571, 573, 576, 577, 578, 585 and 608.BAM Komsomol Headquarters raised a workers quality issue and as a result, the quality of the newcomer work force had dramatically improved.It's true.Back then everyone wanted to go to BAM not because of money but because of prestige.
And now again let's remember the convicts.During the national call, convicts did not participate in BAM construction.However, there was a "limited contingent" here.They were building housing for the militia (police) bosses.